SpaceX’s Crew Dragon Abort System Aces Ground Test Ahead of Major Launch


CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. — SpaceX’s Crew Dragon astronaut taxi successfully fired its launch-escape engines on the ground today (Nov. 13) at the company’s facilities at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, keeping the vehicle on target for a crucial flight test in the coming weeks.

The brief “static fire,” which occurred at approximately 3:08 p.m. EST (2008 GMT), paves the way for SpaceX’s upcoming in-flight abort (IFA) test, a crucial uncrewed flight designed to show that the capsule can keep future astronauts safe in the event that something goes wrong during launch. If the IFA goes well, humans could fly aboard Crew Dragon sometime next year.





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Paleo Staples: 9 Simple and Easy Recipes to Make at Home


There’s no doubt that making your own versions requires more work, but the process is rewarding and usually much cheaper than buying Paleo products off the shelf. I’m going to share nine recipes for Paleo staples that are almost always stocked in my kitchen. Affordable, kid-friendly, nourishing food is my goal.

Looking for a way to eat Paleo without needing to stock up on expensive packaged staples? Check out this article for nine recipes you can make at home. #paleo #wellness

Useful Paleo Kitchen Gadgets

In the recipes below, I will mention a number of handy kitchen gadgets. Not all are necessary, but these appliances do make Paleo cooking easier.

  • Instant Pot: for bone broth and yogurt (and so much more)
  • Yogurt maker: to make yogurt if you don’t want to splurge on the Instant Pot
  • Immersion blender: to emulsify eggs with oil for dressings and mayonnaise
  • Food processor: to grind up nuts for nut bars
  • Pickle Pusher: to weigh down vegetables while they are fermenting to keep them below the liquid
  • Mason jars: to store everything, from dressings to bone broth to yogurt
  • Magic Bullet: for making smoothie popsicles
  • Sous vide device: to “pasteurize” an egg for dressings and mayonnaise
  • Digital instant-read food thermometer: to assist in making yogurt

My Top 9 Paleo Staples to Make at Home

1. Salad Dressings

At $7 or more per bottle, Paleo-friendly salad dressing costs can add up! But salad dressings are some of the easiest things to make at home, as they don’t require any cooking or special tools. A basic vinaigrette recipe usually contains:

  • Avocado oil or extra virgin olive oil
  • Vinegar and/or lemon juice
  • Fresh or dried spices

By changing up these basic ingredients, vinaigrettes like Greek, balsamic, and Italian can be made in minutes. My go-to vinaigrette recipes are from Wellness Mama.

Creamier salad dressings, like ranch or caesar, generally require a raw egg (or a pasteurized egg that was cooked for a couple of hours at a low temperature using a sous vide device). But my favorite “dump ranch” recipe is actually egg-free! It contains:

  • Olive oil
  • Coconut milk
  • Vinegar
  • Onion powder
  • Garlic powder
  • Salt and pepper
  • Lots of dill

Although the recipe calls for fresh dill, I use dried dill with zero complaints.

2. Mayonnaise

A 16-oz jar of Paleo-friendly mayonnaise costs $8.50 at my local grocery store! Luckily, making it at home with an immersion blender is significantly cheaper, and I can customize the flavors, like adding garlic or chipotle.

My preferred simple mayonnaise recipe is from the Whole30 website, and contains:

  • Olive oil
  • An egg
  • Mustard powder
  • Salt
  • Lemon juice

The key to making an emulsion from an egg and oil is to have both at room temperature before you begin. First, blend the egg with an immersion blender, and then slowly pour in the oil while continuing to blend.

3. Yogurt

My family enjoys yogurt topped with frozen fruit, fresh fruit, or nuts pretty much on a daily basis. Luckily, we seem to have no trouble tolerating high-quality dairy products. We have saved literally hundreds of dollars making our own yogurt from milk. Using my yogurt maker, I can make 3 quarts of yogurt at a time using the following recipe:

  1. Heat 11 cups of whole milk in a large saucepan on medium heat until the milk reaches a temperature of 180°F to kill any bacteria. Stir often with a whisk.
  2. Allow the milk to cool until the temperature reaches 110°F. While the milk is cooling, stir often with a whisk to keep a film from forming on the surface. (To speed up the process, I place my saucepan in a large bowl filled partway with ice water, and stir.)
  3. Pour the milk evenly into 3-quart-sized mason jars. Add 3 to 4 tablespoons of store-bought yogurt or yogurt from a previous batch to each jar, and stir with a whisk.
  4. Place the jars into the yogurt maker uncovered, and leave the milk to ferment for 18 to 24 hours. (I have gone up to 28 hours by accident with no issues!)
  5. When stored in the fridge, homemade yogurt keeps for at least a couple of weeks.
Sometimes, individuals with lactose intolerance and FODMAP-intolerance can tolerate homemade yogurt. Yogurt that has been fermenting for 24 hours is close to being lactose-free if your starter yogurt has lactose-consuming bacteria species.

4. Nut Bars

Paleo nut bars are a great alternative to granola bars, which usually contain grains, excess sugar, and/or vegetable oils. They are one of our go-to travel snacks—but fair warning that they don’t keep their shape if left at room temperature for too long. My kids also love to crumble the bars on top of yogurt, kind of like grain-free granola.

Paleo Nut Bar Recipe

Ingredients:

  • 6 cups nuts or seeds (I use 2 cups each of dry roasted almonds, cashews, and walnuts)
  • 2 cups raisins
  • 2 cups unsweetened coconut flakes
  • ½ cup coconut oil (or butter, ghee)
  • 1 ¼ cups nut butter
  • ⅓ cup raw honey
  • 1 tsp vanilla extract
  • ½ tsp sea salt
  • 2 tsp ground cinnamon

Directions:

  1. Grind the nuts/seeds in a large food processor for about 10 seconds, to create a variety of sizes, from sand-size to small chunks.
  2. Pour ground nuts into a large bowl, add in raisins and coconut flakes, and stir to combine.
  3. In a small saucepan, melt coconut oil, peanut butter, honey, vanilla, sea salt, and cinnamon on medium heat until it bubbles, stirring often.
  4. Pour the hot mixture over the dry mixture and stir until everything is coated evenly.
  5. Pour the mix into a 9×13-in. pan. Press down firmly and evenly.
  6. Place in the fridge for at least six hours before cutting into pieces.

5. Bone Broth

The benefits of bone broth span many aspects of health. Rich in collagen, glycine, other amino acids, and minerals, bone broth consumption boasts health benefits for skin, bones, and joints, the gut and digestion, and more. The Weston A. Price Foundation provides simple bone broth recipes for chicken, beef, and even fish stock.

A basic bone broth recipe includes lots of cartilage-rich bone pieces, water, a splash of vinegar, carrots, celery, onions, and spices like sage, thyme, rosemary, and parsley. With a slow cooker, bone broth should simmer for 24 to 48 hours. With an Instant Pot, bone broth can be ready in just a few hours!

6. Smoothie Popsicles

Smoothies-turned-popsicles are one of my favorite parenting “hacks,” but they aren’t just for kids. On hot summer days, popsicles hit the spot, but the popsicles available at the grocery store leave much to be desired.

My favorite popsicle recipe uses a few simple ingredients:

  • ½ banana
  • ½ cup yogurt
  • ½ cup frozen mango
  • 1 tbsp almond butter (optional)

Using the Magic Bullet, blend all the ingredients and then pour them into popsicle molds. Place them in the freezer for several hours. When made in the morning at breakfast, the popsicles are ready to eat that same day after school (or work!).

7. Probiotic Switchel

Have you ever bought the probiotic drink kombucha? It’s crazy expensive! A cheap, easy alternative to kombucha is switchel—it’s not produced in the same way as kombucha, but it’s a deliciously refreshing probiotic drink that can be easily made at home and fermented overnight.

My preferred recipe comes again from Wellness Mama, and includes the following ingredients:

  • Raw apple cider vinegar (the probiotic component)
  • Raw honey
  • Lime juice
  • Ginger
  • Filtered water

In a pinch, I have used ground ginger instead of fresh, and packaged lemon juice in place of fresh lime juice. My favorite way to enjoy switchel is by mixing it in a one-to-one ratio with lemon or lime seltzer water.

8. Sauerkraut

Bring on the probiotics! Fermented fruits and vegetables were staples of our ancestors’ diets. They preserved well and provided ample probiotics to keep our guts healthy. I have dabbled in fermented vegetables, but the tried-and-true recipe I use is from Nourishing Traditions for sauerkraut.

Homemade sauerkraut is straightforward. First, the cabbage needs to be sliced into very thin, small pieces. After sprinkling sea salt (note: do not use iodized salt!) onto the shredded cabbage, pound the cabbage with a mallet or use your hands to knead the cabbage for 10 or more minutes until the juices are released from the plant cell walls.

Once the juices are able to cover the sauerkraut if packed down, transfer the cabbage to mason jars. Cover the cabbage with its own juices and some spices, and leave it to ferment for a few days. I prefer to use the Pickle Pusher, but it’s not necessary as long as you make sure to push the cabbage below the liquid a couple of times each day to prevent mold formation. If mold does form, you can usually get away with just scraping off the top layer and proceeding with fermentation.

Sauerkraut is an excellent side dish to many recipes, from Mexican-inspired cuisine to standard “meat-and-potato” fare.

9. Spice Blends

This last Paleo staple serves more as a money-saving hack. When people first make the change to eat “Paleo,” they still want flavor. All too often, this leads to buying spice blends for all kinds of cuisine. These spice mixes cost a fortune compared to the price it actually costs to mix them up yourself. If you are cooking most of your meals at home, you probably already have many of the spices that are included in common spice blends you find at the grocery store.

My solution is to premake commonly used spice blends in different dishes. For some examples, I always keep Cajun, Mexican, Italian, Greek, and Ethiopian spice mixes in bulk in 8-oz mason jars in my pantry. If you search around, there is a plethora of recipes on the internet, including here.

Do you have any of these Paleo staples in your kitchen? What would you add to this list? 

Our hunter–gatherer ancestors lived very different lives than we do. They ate nutrient-dense foods (not processed, inflammatory ones), they were active (not sedentary), and they made time for pleasure and rest (instead of living in a constant state of stress and busyness). This mismatch between the way we evolved and the way we now live is driving the current chronic disease epidemic. For many, correcting the mismatch with an ancestral diet and lifestyle is a great place to start.

The ADAPT Health Coach Training Program includes course materials on ancestral diet and lifestyle, Functional Health, and the art and practice of coaching. Graduates of this program are well equipped to collaborate with Functional Medicine practitioners and support clients as they make lifestyle changes and better their health.

Are you interested in a career as a Functional health coach? Find out if the ADAPT Health Coach Training Program is the right step forward for your future.





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The Science Is Extremely Clear: You Need to Prioritize Sleep


When I was in college, I informed my parents that they could stop hoping I would achieve anything close to greatness: I simply needed too much sleep. While President Barack Obama was up late sending emails and writing letters into the wee hours, and all my friends were telling me they could “sleep when they’re dead,” I was snoozing away critical hours.

Compared with giraffes, which zonk out for just 30 minutes a day, or dolphins, which rest only one-half of their brains at a time, I—who will gleefully luxuriate in nine hours of shut-eye now and then—am basically a lump who occasionally has wakeful moments.

Turns out I still might have a chance. “Sleep is so critical for so many parts of our body and our mind,” says Aric Prather, a sleep scientist at UCSF. It strengthens the immune system and helps regulate metabolism. It can clear out toxins that build up in the brain and prevent neurodegenerative diseases. “Sleep is like the dishwasher of the brain,” Prather explains in WIRED’s latest “Five Levels” video.

Rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep—the phase during which we dream—usually gets the most hype. But Prather says all phases, from the lightest slumber to the deepest unconsciousness, are important processes that allow our brains and bodies to recover from the previous day and can help us learn and remember information better.

Getting rest isn’t always as simple as climbing into bed and shutting off the lights. Circadian rhythms, hormones like melatonin, and even the neurotransmitter dopamine play a role. There’s still a lot scientists don’t understand about what happens when we drift off, but the more we learn, the more important sleep becomes.

Whether a cause or a symptom, abnormal sleep plays a role in diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Measuring disturbed sleep could be one way to detect the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. Eventually, medicines that help promote more natural sleep cycles could help treat those very diseases. “I’m excited about the future of sleep medicine,” says Prather. Instead of thinking of sleep as a nuisance, maybe we’ll start finally seeing it for what it actually is: a necessity.

Check out the video above. You can also watch the full series on WIRED’s free app for Roku, Apple TV, Android TV and Amazon Fire TV.


More Great WIRED Stories



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The Top 15 Supplements & Vitamins for Stress Relief


Imagine going through the day with a constant happy vibe. You’re productive, content, and feeling good. In today’s busy world, we can so easily forget it’s possible to feel stress-free and live in a peaceful state of mind. Your stress levels don’t have to be through the roof. In fact, chronic stress can have serious ramifications on your health. Getting to that peaceful place may require lifestyle and dietary changes, but it’s definitely possible.

After I changed my diet and my lifestyle decades ago, I went from being depressed to having a positive state of mind almost all of the time. One of the best things I did during this shift was to start paying close attention to my nutrition. I realized there were some important nutrients I wasn’t getting in my diet so I started taking high-quality supplements — including vitamins, minerals, and herbal supplements — to fill the gaps.

Being low on certain vitamins or minerals can actually lead to the feeling you know of as anxiety or stress. People who are missing essential nutrients in their diets are more likely to have mood disorders. Counteracting those deficiencies by taking daily supplements can help improve symptoms and get you on the right track.[1]

Top Supplements & Vitamins for Stress

The following vitamins, minerals, and supplements are the best ones I’ve found for countering daily stress and creating a positive, carefree mood.

Minerals

Minerals are compounds formed naturally in the Earth, some of which are essential for our health. A few minerals play a clear role in mental wellness and promoting a healthy response to stress.

Magnesium

This essential mineral increases your body’s production of GABA, a neurotransmitter that encourages relaxation and even sleep.[2] If you’re low or deficient in magnesium — far too common in North America — it can directly cause low stress tolerance and agitation.[3]

Magnesium is a mineral that you can find in foods like green leafy vegetables, nuts, and legumes. Lucky for you chocolate lovers, this comfort food is rich in magnesium! Choose dark chocolate with more than 70 percent cacao.

Zinc

The essential mineral zinc is integral to your immune system and brain. People with lower zinc levels are more prone to depression.[1] When people took zinc daily for 10 weeks, they reported feeling a lifted mood and more positive feelings.[4, 5]

You’ll find zinc in hemp seeds, pumpkin seeds, lentils, black beans, oats, wild rice, quinoa, pecans, mushrooms, and spinach, to name a few.[5]

Lithium Orotate

Lithium is an alkali metal that you need in trace amounts. Incredibly, studies have linked the presence of this nutrient in drinking water to happier states of mind and more peacefulness across entire neighborhoods.[6] It positively affects your brain health, nervous system, mood, and immunity.[7]

Lithium orotate is lithium bonded to orotic acid. This very small molecule is able to cross the blood-brain barrier as well as cell walls, making it readily available for brain health. Small servings can have very positive effects on your emotional well-being.[7]

Vitamins

Vitamins are compounds that play a crucial role in many body processes. However, you must get them from dietary sources since your body does not make them. Below are the vitamins that affect the stress response.

Vitamin D

Most individuals in the United States are low in vitamin D — an essential nutrient. Vitamin D not only helps your body absorb calcium, but it’s also important for a happy mood.[8] Since most people get their vitamin D from sunshine, you may not get enough, especially in the winter.

Lack of vitamin D can lead to depression and an increase in stress and anxiety.[9] Light therapy or supplementation can help, as there are not too many vitamin D-rich foods. Global Healing Center’s Suntrex D3™ contains lichen-derived D3 — the most absorbable form of the vitamin.

Vitamin B Complex

One of the main benefits of taking a vitamin B complex supplement is its positive impact on mood and stress. A vitamin B complex supplement usually includes thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid or folate (B9), and cobalamin (B12).

A lack of B12, in particular, is linked to low mood and high stress. Men who took a B complex supplement along with vitamin C for around a month reported that their mental health was better, and they had less stress.[10] In another case, men and women taking a vitamin B complex reported improvements in their mood and stress.[11] That’s good news!

Herbs

Several herbs, which you can find in capsules, extracts, or tea, can help lift mood and reduce daily stress. Below are the best of the best!

Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a popular herb in Indian culture. This plant has a positive impact on stress, anxiety, and memory. When people took ashwagandha for two months, it reduced levels of cortisol — the stress hormone — in their blood.[10] Cortisol increases when you’re under pressure and affects your memory, immune system, weight, and more. Researchers also noted that ashwagandha didn’t cause any serious side effects.[12]

Valerian Root

Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is an herb that has a calming effect on the body by supporting healthy levels of the neurotransmitter GABA. It lowers nervous tension and reduces anxiety and daily stress, as well.[13, 14] Ancient Greeks used this herb to improve sleep, and today it’s still popular among people who experience trouble sleeping. In fact, it’s the most commonly used sleeping aid in Europe. So if you do take valerian for stress, you may want to take it later in the day to avoid daytime drowsiness.

Tulsi (Holy Basil)

Holy basil or tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) has a lovely, spice-like taste and aroma that resembles nutmeg. Tulsi is an adaptogen, which means it helps the body adapt or adjust to stress. It’s popular in teas as well as nutritional supplements. As a supplement, it has been shown to help improve mood and daily stress and anxiety.[15]

Ginseng

Korean or red ginseng (Panax ginseng) is an incredible herb with health-giving properties. In fact, Panax means “cure-all” in Greek. It can boost energy, reduce fatigue, increase alertness, lower stress, and lift mood. It’s known as a nootropic or brain booster, as well as an adaptogen. Korean ginseng also has powerful antioxidant activity that may reduce oxidative stress and protect brain cells.[16]

Rhodiola

Rhodiola rosea is a flowering plant that grows in cold climates. People typically use it for anxiety, headaches, depression, and stress.[17]Rhodiola is an adaptogen that normalizes body processes and hormones. When a group of people who had anxiety, stress, and other mood issues took Rhodiola, they experienced less anxiety, stress, anger, depression, and confusion.[18]

Bacopa

Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) is an Indian herb with small white flowers. For centuries, people have used Bacopa to improve memory and lessen stress. In recent times, when a group of people took this herb for 12 weeks, they felt less depressed and anxious.[19] As a bonus, they also did better on a memory test. It’s thought that Bacopa helps regulate stress hormones.

St. John’s Wort

St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a flowering plant that is popular in teas and supplements. People often dry and prepare its yellow flowers to help depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders. Today, it’s easy to find St. John’s wort in supplement form. It may help you better manage stress.[20]

Other Supplements

Some supplements don’t fall cleanly into the categories of mineral, vitamin, or herbal supplement. However, they have an important and positive effect on health — in this case, brain health and the stress response.

L-Theanine

L-theanine is an amino acid naturally found in green tea leaves. As a supplement, you can buy it in a powder or pill form — or you can just drink green tea. L-theanine helps people manage stress and feel calm. People taking L-theanine may have lower cortisol levels, less stress, and less anxiety.[21] This amino acid promotes relaxation without causing drowsiness.[22]

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of essential fat that your body needs. Since the brain is composed mainly of fat, it makes sense that they play an important role in cognitive function and the brain’s response to stress.[23] When people with anxiety took omega-3 fatty acid supplements, they reported feeling more calm and less stressed.[24]

You can find these fatty acids in nuts, seeds, fish, and plant oils. I recommend plant-based options, like flaxseed oil, olive oil, and algae oil for best results.

Probiotics

Probiotics are microorganisms that help balance gut bacteria inside your body. The gut plays a crucial and often underappreciated role in mental health, including how much stress you feel.

The gut makes most of the body’s serotonin, a neurotransmitter that contributes to happiness and well-being. Probiotic bacteria actually help produce the serotonin used by your body. They live symbiotically within our bodies, and we need a healthy gut microbiota for mental wellness.[25] An advanced probiotic blend like Floratrex™ that has 25 unique strains and 75 billion CFUs provides well-rounded support for your gut and mind. You can also find probiotics in fermented foods like kimchi, kombucha, sauerkraut, and non-dairy yogurt.

Other Tips for Managing Stress

Taking herbs and vitamins isn’t the only way to manage stress. From getting a good night’s sleep to meditating more often, there are simple modifications you can make to feel better. The bottom line is that you should find what is really at the root of your stress and take action to reduce it. Experiencing stress over the long term can have detrimental impacts on various aspects of your health, so take it seriously. Here are a few ideas:

  • Go for a walk outdoors

  • Get more exercise

  • Try deep-breathing exercises

  • Meditate at least 10 minutes per day

  • Get adequate sleep

  • Create a gratitude journal

  • Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine

  • Talk to a counselor

If you’re not able to manage stress on your own, and it’s affecting your ability to enjoy life, please reach out to a licensed therapist to get additional help.

Points to Remember

When you’re feeling stressed, certain supplements and vitamins can provide a natural way to manage stress with few side effects. Improving the nutritional content of your diet is the first option, but where your diet falls shorts, you can add in supplements.

Minerals that may help include magnesium, zinc, and lithium, preferably lithium orotate. Vitamins include the D and the B-complex, particularly B12, and other supplements that don’t fit into neat categories, include probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, and L-theanine. Herbs that can play a positive role in your response to stress include ashwagandha, valerian root, Korean ginseng, Rhodiola, Bacopa, and St. John’s wort.

There is a strong link between your physical health and emotional health, so try exercise, walking outdoors in nature, meditation, or journaling to alleviate stress. Also, focus on eating a healthy diet and avoid caffeine, alcohol, and smoking.

Stress reduction is an essential part of taking care of your health. We all deserve to live happy lives. You are worth it!

What herbs and supplements have you used successfully for stress relief? Share your experiences in the comments below!

References (25)
  1. Sathyanarayana Rao TS, et al. Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses. Indian J Psychiatry. 2008;50(2):77-82.

  2. Boyle NB, et al. The effects of magnesium supplementation on subjective anxiety and stress—a systematic review. Nutrients. 2017 May;9(5):429.

  3. Gröber U, et al. Magnesium in prevention and therapy. Nutrients. 2015;7(9):8199-8226.

  4. Sawada T, Yokoi K. Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar;64(3):331-333.

  5. Zinc Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Updated 26 Sep. 2018. Accessed 29 Oct 2019.

  6. Schrauzer GN, Shrestha KP. Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides, and arrests related to drug addictions. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990;25(2):105-113.

  7. Marshall TM. Lithium as a nutrient. J Am Physicians Surgeons. 2015; 20(4):104-109.

  8. Penckofer S, et al. Vitamin D and depression: where is all the sunshine? Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Jun; 31(6):385-393.

  9. Bičíková M, et al. Vitamin D in anxiety and affective disorders. Physiol Res. 2015;64(Suppl 2):S101-S103.

  10. Kennedy DO, et al. Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;211(1):55-68.

  11. Lewis JE, et al. The effect of methylated vitamin B complex on depressive and anxiety symptoms and quality of life in adults with depression. ISRN Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 21;2013:621453.

  12. Chandrasekhar K, et al. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34(3):255-262.

  13. Valerian Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Updated 15 Mar 2013. Accessed 29 Oct 2019.

  14. Kennedy DO, et al. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress. Phytother Res. 2006 Feb;20(2):96-102.

  15. Bhattacharyya D, et al. Controlled programmed trial of Ocimum sanctum leaf on generalized anxiety disorders. Nepal Med Coll J. 2008;10(3):176-179.

  16. Kim EH, et al. Anti-oxidative stress effect of red ginseng in the brain is mediated by peptidyl arginine deiminase type IV (PADI4) repression via estrogen receptor (ER) beta up-regulation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148(2):474-485.

  17. Rhodiola. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), National Institutes of Health. Updated 24 Sep 2017. Accessed 29 Oct 2019.

  18. Cropley M, et al. The effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on anxiety, stress, cognition and other mood symptoms. Phytother Res. 2015 Dec;29(12):1934-1939.

  19. Calabrese C, et al. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(6):707-713.

  20. Kumar A, et al. Effect of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 May 7;10:18.

  21. White DJ, et al. Anti-stress, behavioural and magnetoencephalography effects of an L-theanine-based nutrient drink: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Nutrients. 2016;8(1):53.

  22. Nobre AC, et al. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(Suppl 1):167-168.

  23. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Updated 21 Nov. 2018. Accessed 28 Nov. 2018.

  24. Su K-P, et al. Association of use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with changes in severity of anxiety symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(5):e182327.

  25. Wallace CJK, Milev R. The effects of probiotics on depressive symptoms in humans: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:14.

†Results may vary. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor. If you have a severe medical condition or health concern, see your physician.